Endodontics is the dental branch that focuses on the inner tissues of the tooth.
Endodontic therapy is a day surgery treatment required when the pulp (tooth nerve) is inflamed or infected due to caries or trauma damage.
Endodontic therapy (or root canal treatment) consists in removing the inflamed and infected pulp (tooth nerve) located inside the tooth and along the entire length of the roots, and in replacing it with a permanent filling made of gutta-percha and root canal cement, after an adequate cleansing and shaping of the root canals.
Dentist that deals with endodontics needs a specific gear as: enlargement equipment, digital X-ray devices, NiTi file revolution (a special drill for endodontics) in addition to rotating instruments, an electronic apex locator, gutta-percha heater.
These are the operational phases for a canal therapy:
Working area isolation with rubber dam;
Removal of old restorations and possible temporary reconstruction of the dental crown, if damaged;
Opening of the pulp chamber (it contains the nerve);
Finding one or more root canals by enlargement equipment;
Root canal measurement by digital X-ray (possibility of measurement) and an electronic apex locator;
Canal instrumentation by NiTi (Nickel-Titanium) manual and rotating endodontic instruments;
Root canal irrigation – Irrigation with Sodium Hypochloride concentration;
Canal filling by gutta-percha;
Reconstruction of the crown;
X-ray check at the end of the therapy;
Crown restoration by filling or prosthesis.